What is Acetyl-CoA in protein synthesis? How is Acetyl-CoA formed?

Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Acetyl-CoA is a thioester between the acyl group carrier, acetic acid and a thiol, coenzyme A.

What is Acetyl-CoA in protein synthesis?

Acetyl-CoA is a metabolite derived from glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid catabolism. During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into two three-carbon molecules of pyruvate. Acetyl-CoA serves as a substrate for lysine acetyltransferases (KATs), which catalyze the transfer of acetyl groups to the epsilon-amino groups of lysines in histones and many other proteins. The corresponding gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-AI to produce the recombinant E. histolytica ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase (EhACS) protein.

How is Acetyl-CoA formed?

Pyruvate—three carbons—is converted to acetyl CoA, a two-carbon molecule attached to coenzyme A. Acetyl-CoA is generated either by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate from glycolysis, which occurs in mitochondrial matrix, by oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, or by oxidative degradation of certain amino acids. Acetyl-CoA then enters in the TCA cycle where it is oxidized for energy production.

Acetyl-CoA is a useful chemical.

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